What Is Coparcenary?

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What Is Coparcenary?

In Indian family law, the concept of coparcenary holds great significance, particularly within the Hindu Joint Family system. Coparcenary refers to the legal framework that governs the inheritance rights and property ownership within a joint Hindu family. In this blog post, we will delve into the details of coparcenary, its historical background, key features, and its relevance in contemporary society.

Historical Background:

Coparcenary has its roots in ancient Hindu law and has been an integral part of the Hindu Joint Family system for centuries. The concept originated from the idea of joint family ownership, where multiple generations of a family live together, sharing resources, responsibilities, and ancestral property. The Mitakshara School of Hindu law is the primary source of principles governing coparcenary.

Key Features Of Coparcenary:

  1. Inheritance Rights: Coparcenary provides male descendants with inheritance rights in the ancestral property of the joint family. Under traditional Hindu law, only male members of the family were considered coparceners, while female members had limited rights.
  2. Birthright: Coparcenary rights are acquired by birth in the family. Upon birth, a male member becomes a coparcener and has a share in the ancestral property. This share can increase or decrease with births, deaths, or partition within the family.
  3. Equal Shares: Within the coparcenary, each coparcener has an equal share in the ancestral property. The concept of “survivorship” applies, meaning that when a coparcener passes away, their share is distributed equally among the surviving coparceners.
  4. Limited Alienation: Coparcenary property has certain restrictions on alienation. In general, coparcenary property cannot be sold or disposed of without the consent of all coparceners. However, coparceners can individually sell their share to another coparcener or a third party, subject to legal limitations.

Relevance In Contemporary Society:

  1. Gender Equality: In recent years, legal reforms have aimed to promote gender equality within coparcenary. The Hindu Succession (Amendment) Act, 2005, grants equal coparcenary rights to both male and female descendants, ensuring fairness in property distribution.
  2. Succession Planning: Coparcenary plays a vital role in succession planning for Hindu families. It facilitates the smooth transfer of ancestral property from one generation to the next, ensuring the preservation of family wealth and heritage.
  3. Family Cohesion: The concept of coparcenary fosters strong family bonds and promotes a sense of shared responsibility among family members. It encourages mutual support, cooperation, and intergenerational harmony within the joint family system.
  4. Legal Framework: Coparcenary provides a well-defined legal framework for property rights and inheritance within joint Hindu families. It helps resolve disputes and ensures a systematic approach to property division.


Coparcenary is an essential aspect of the Hindu Joint Family system, governing inheritance rights and property ownership. It has evolved over time to adapt to changing societal norms and promote gender equality. Coparcenary not only safeguards ancestral property but also fosters family unity, cultural preservation, and intergenerational harmony. Understanding the principles of coparcenary allows individuals and families to navigate legal matters, ensure fair property distribution, and uphold the values of the joint Hindu family system in contemporary society.


What Is The Example Of Coparcenary?

So under Mitakshara a son, son’s son, son’s son’s son can a coparcenary i.e. father and his three lineal male descendants can be a coparcener. For Example: Suppose in a Joint Family a Coparcenary will be consisting of four members including father and his three male lineal descendants.

What Is The Difference Between Coparcener And Inheritance?

9 Replies. Sir, coparcenery property refers to property inherited upto four generations of members of a Hindu joint family. Whereas ancestral property refers to that property inherited by the ancestors of a person who is a member of Hindu joint family irrespective of number of generations.

What Is The Coparcenary Rule Of Inheritance?

The idea and concept of the Coparcenary are discussed under the Hindu Succession Act of 1956. The meaning of the Coparcenary refers to the possession of the ancestral property of the family. The word “coparcener” in Hindu law refers to male family members who have a birthright to take a stake in ancestral property.

Who Are The Members Of Coparcenary?

Coparcenary, as opposed to Joint Hindu Family, consists of all male lineal descendants of the last holder of the property up to three generations. The coparcenary is made up of up to three generations, namely son, son’s son, and son’s son’s son, with the senior-most member designated as the ‘last holder.


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